Special Needs Students
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) list 13 separate categories of disabilities under which children may be eligible for special education and related services. The handicapping conditions are:
Autism means a developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, generally evident before age 3, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. Other characteristics often associated with autism are engagement in repetitive activities and stereotyped movements, resistance to environmental change or change in daily routines, and unusual responses to sensory experiences. The term does not apply if a child’s educational performance is adversely affected primarily because the child has an emotional disturbance.
Deaf-Blindness means concomitant hearing and visual impairments, the combination of which causes such severe communication and other developmental and educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for children with deafness or child with blindness.
Deafness means a hearing impairment that is so severe that the child is impaired in processing linguistics information through hearing, with or without amplification, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.
Emotional disturbance is defined as a condition exhibiting on or more of the following characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked degree that adversely affects a child’s educational performance:
- An inability to learn that cannot be explained by intellectual sensory, or health factors
- An inability to build or maintain satisfactory interpersonal relationships with peers and teachers
- Inappropriate types of behavior or feelings under normal circumstances
- A general pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression
- A tendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with personal or school problems
The term includes schizophrenia. The term does not apply to children who are socially maladjusted, unless it is determined that they have an emotional disturbance.
Hearing impairment means an impairment in hearing, whether permanent or fluctuating that adversely affects a child’s educational performance but that is no included under the definition of deafness in this section.
Mental retardation means significantly sub-average general intellectual functioning with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.
Multiple disabilities means concomitant impairments (such as mental retardation – blindness, mental retardation – orthopedic, etc) the combination of which causes such severe educational needs that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs solely for one of the impairment. The term does not include deaf-blindness.
Orthopedic impairments means a sever orthopedic impairments that adversely affects a child’s educational performance. The term includes impairments caused by congenital abnormality (e.g. clubfoot, absence of some member, etc), impairments caused by disease (e.g. poliomyelitis, bone tuberculosis, etc), and impairments from other causes (e.g. cerebral palsy, amputations, and fractures or burns that cause contractures).
Other Health Impairments
Other health impairments means having limited strength, vitality or alertness, including a heightened alertness to environmental stimuli that results in limited alertness with respect to the educational environment, that is due to chronic or acute health problems such as asthma, attention deficit disorder or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, diabetes, epilepsy, a heart condition, hemophilia, lead poisoning, leukemia, nephritis, rheumatic fever, and sickly cell anemia and adversely affects a child’s educational performance.
Specific Learning Disability
Specific learning disability means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, that may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations, including conditions such as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal; brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia. The term does not include learning problems that are primarily the result of visual, hearing or motor disabilities, of mental retardation, or emotional disturbance, or of environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage.
Speech or Language Impairment
Speech or language impairment means a communication disorder, such as stuttering, impaired articulation, a language impairment, or a voice impairment, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance.
Visual Impairment Including Blindness
Visual impairment including blindness means an impairment in vision that, even with correction, adversely affects a child’s educational performance. There term includes both partial sight and blindness.